International Journal of English Literature and Culture

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International Journal of English Literature and Culture

Vol. 1(2), pp. 3340, November, 2013

ISSN: 2360-7831

DOI: 10.14662/IJELC2013.017 




Taye Awoyemi


Department of English Redeemer’s University, Mowe, Nigeria.
Author’s E-mail: ayomideinde@gmail.com

Accepted 20 October, 2013



As the world gradually moves towards an age of absolute dependence on technology and speed, a new genre of communication has appeared on the horizon. This genre seems to see already established conventions of grammatical structure and rules from a different perspective. The paper examines this genre in the light of conventional writing strategies, and assesses its implication on the English usage of selected Nigerian undergraduates who use English language as a second language for academic purposes. It recognizes the position of the English language and the challenges this language poses to literacy in the 21st century. It views the emergence of this genre as useful to further insight into the teaching of English as a second language. It opines that interest in the study of the language of the Internet might lead to the discovery of further strategies that can aid both student and teacher in the process of second language learning and teaching. It concludes that since this form of communication has come to stay, further codification and standardization of this genre be encouraged.

Keywords: Emergent, trends, Language, internet, globalisation, L2



Sociolinguistics is the descriptive study of the effect of any, and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations and context on the way language is used, and the effects of language use on society. It focuses on the effect of the society on language and how languages vary between groups separated by certain social variables like ethnicity, religion, status gender, education and the likes (Wikipedia, 2013).

In any social interaction between groups of people, language is essential. It is not only functional, but also, if used rightly, helps to forge a solid relationship between peoples and societies. Language therefore cannot be divorced from communication. Language is a very complex thing and can be seen as part of human psychology (Corder, 1979), simply put, it is a system of rules in which sounds, structure, and meaning are integrated for communication purposes; it is a system of communication within a community or a particular social group (Ayoola, 2007). Language is orderly, meaningful, and creative. One can say it is orderly in the sense that it follows general principles known as rules of grammar; meaningful because a combination of words converts complex meaning according to the ordering of such words. Language’s ultimate aim is to communicate; communication uses language as its vehicle to get ideas and messages via the encoder, through a channel to the decoder. Language’s ultimate aim is to communicate; communication on the other hand uses language as its vehicle to get ideas and messages via the encoder, through a channel to the decoder. Not stopping there, the system also ensures that the communication process is complete by ensuring that a feedback is given to the encoder by the decoder.

The Internet also is a means of communication that employs language to achieve its aims. It is one of the most significant technological developments of the late 20th century; it is a 'live', constantly 'moving', theoretically borderless, potentially infinite space for the production and circulation of information (Jagboro, 2003 ). Indeed, the Internet’s primary mission is communication – of ideas, work, and even play (Thomas, 1997).

It was Vinton Cerf that created the Internet technology in early 1973 as part of a project headed by Robert Kahn and conducted by the Advanced Research Projects Agency, part of the United States Department of Defence. Thereafter, Cerf led many efforts to build, scale, and standardize the Internet. In 1984 the technology and the network were turned over to the private sector and to government scientific agencies for further development. In 1999 alone, 205 countries and territories in the world had at least one connection to the Internet. By early 2000, access was available in over 200 countries and encompassed around 100 million users. This growth has continued exponentially.

As a matter of fact, the Internet and its technology has continued to have a profound effect in promoting the sharing of information, making possible rapid transactions among businesses, and supporting global collaboration among individuals and organizations. It goes without saying that the development of the World Wide Web is fuelling the rapid introduction of new business tools and activities that have led to annual business transactions on the Internet acclaimed to be worth hundreds of billions of pounds. The potential of web-based commerce is immense. Techniques that allow safe transactions over the Net (for payment and funds transfers), the construction of faster, more secure networks and the development of efficient search techniques make the Internet not only an instrument for communication, but also an ideal trading medium (Encarta© 2004). Its popularity and relevance in this new millennium cannot be overlooked. Indeed, research has identified this genre of writing as being popular among youths, as well as a viable instrument for research.

This paper will therefore focus on writing skills as a means of communication in the English language using the Internet medium of E-mailing and chatting; furthermore, dwelling on language usage on this medium, strategies used to evolve this language type will be discussed, as well as its relevance to second language teaching and learning. Finally, the paper identifies the challenges this new trend poses to ‘orthodox’ modern English usage, and its implication in the furtherance of evolving language policies in Nigeria.


Language is a very complex thing and can be seen as part of the human psychology (Corder, 1979); simply put, it is a system of rules in which sounds structure and meaning are integrated for communication purposes. (Ako, 1999). Language is orderly, meaningful, and creative. It is considered orderly because it follows general principles known as the rules of grammar, meaningful, because combinations of words convert complex meanings according to the ordering of such words. Finally, it is creative because even though it is standardized, yet it is very flexible (Tunde-Arayela, 1999).

Communication also is language; indeed it is language whose principal function is communication. All behaviour is in some measure communicative and based on set conventions. Indeed, behaviour could serve as an attitudinal function to express a state of mind and emotions, to establish rapport with our hearers or to promote feelings of solidarity, confidence, and goodwill. In addition, it could also serve as a cognitive function to express perceptions, imaginations, and beliefs about the “states of affairs” (Corder, 1979). Human communication can be verbal or non-verbal. All animals communicate, but man’s ability to communicate via language differentiates him from other living things. Doubtless to state that there is no communication without a system of signs; the communication characteristic of human beings is interaction by means of language (Longe and Ofuani, 1996). However, as earlier stated, it would be wrong to assume that speech is at the centre of communication because the medium of communication may vary, however, the message does not (O’Connor, 1977).

The act of communication starts in the brain of the sender/speaker: indeed, this brain has a creative and a forwarding function. The creative function is central; through it the message is conceived and formed. Furthermore, stored into the brain is a profound knowledge of the way in which the language operates - the rules of the game, as it were - derived from earlier experiences of operating the language both as a speaker and a listener to this language from earliest childhood (O’Conner, 1977).

For this function, one can identify three phases in the communicative process:

 A need to communicate arises. This could be in form of response to some outside event or some inner thought process. Whatever it is, there is a need to initiate a message.
 Having initiated a message, the next phase is the decision as to what medium to use.
 Finally, there is the need to decide on the form the message will take.

All these decisions are done so rapidly that one is not consciously aware of doing them. When this process is complete, the forwarding function of the brain begins. The part of the brain, which is concerned with controlling muscular movement, sends patterned instructions in form of nervous impulses along the nervous pathways connecting the brain to the muscles of the organ responsible for the communication.

From the on-going, communication can be seen as a process: a process can be defined as a series of actions carried out in order to achieve a particular result, means or end. Thus communication consists of the following elements:

 A source
 An encoder
 A message
 A channel
 A decoder
 A receiver
 A feed-back

It is obvious that language and communication are related. Language’s ultimate aim is to communicate; communication on the other hand uses language as its vehicle to get ideas and messages via the encoder, through a channel to the decoder. Not stopping there, the system also ensures that the communication process is complete by ensuring that a feedback is given to the encoder by the decoder. Language and communication are people-oriented and do not take place in a vacuum, but at a particular time and place, in a physical or temporal setting. Seen in this light, language is the primary and most sophisticated means of communication between peoples. Language expresses the culture of a people and is part of the world cultural heritage; therefore the loss of a language is the loss of human intellectual heritage (Taiwo, 2004). If communication is to be truly close and meaningful, if complex ideas are to be communicated with clarity and understood without any ambiguity, then it follows that the users of any language must be skilled in its use.


Nigeria’s population, which is currently rated at an estimated 88 million people, or more, is rated among the top fifteen most populous countries in the world. In the past, it had been argued that Nigeria is not a nation but a mere geographical expression (Awolowo, 1947). Considering the historical past of Nigeria, ethnolinguistic pluralism has been the scourge of Nigerian political life long before her independence in 1960. The colonial policy gave recognition to this by demarcating the country along this ethnolinguistic pluralism: it has therefore been the source of instability in the Nigerian political economy.

Language in itself is not harmful, but when it is dressed in other abusive symbolism, then it promotes ethnicity. When this ethnicity is permitted to pervade the foundation of the society, it presents a negative relationship among different groups. This is detrimental to the development both of the nation as well as of others outside this language group: what follows this is a gradual blockage of social mobility because of membership in a given language group.
The origin of the use of English in Nigeria dates back to the nineteenth century when freed slaves of Nigerian origin returned to Nigeria in the wake of the abolition of slavery and slave trade (Ayoola 2007). Linguists have recorded that Nigeria has no fewer than 400 languages (Elugbe, 1992) and many scholars have attributed this fact to the concept of ethnicity. Nigeria has been searching for a national language policy relevant to her needs. In such a nation that strives for unity in diversity, her citizens can find this unity in a national language. Linguists, backed by theories, agree that the language we speak influence our thinking and consciousness. If this is so, then the answer to the question of persistent and unending conflicts, which have characterized Nigeria since independence, can be traced to language.

One is aware of the move towards seeking an indigenous language as the lingua franca in Nigeria, one such postulate is that of WAZOBIA. Arguments have been made in support of this citing countries like Italy, Germany, USSR and others, who do not use English Languages as a lingua franca. Some authorities have even observed that countries that use their national language for the purpose of teaching pupils seem to do better than those who impose a foreign language on the learners. One such evidence is cited from the Second International Science Study which showed that Japanese Primary School children came first in primary science among the countries of the world while Nigeria[n Primary School children ] came last (Iwuagwu, 1997); this is all in a bid to support the value of education in the indigenous language.

Some Nigerian critics have postulated that such an experiment or adoption could prove very expensive. Their argument has been that some concepts already expressed in text-books have no Nigerian equivalent in the indigenous language, thus, they claim, translation could distort meaning and concept. Secondly they feel that the process of training staff in this dimension could prove laborious and a huge amount of financial commitment to translate any, and all, blue-prints into reality (Iwuagwu, 1997) would be needed. Finally, they suggest an unwillingness of the groups to give up their language in place of any other indigenous language in the spirit of national language (Awobuluyi, 1992).

Of a truth, development requires a wide communication to articulate and enhance its process; hence linguistic unity will enable the federating units of political entity to aspire towards a consciousness necessary for development. It is national consciousness and unity of purpose that propel citizens to development. It has been observed that countries that have a single speech community, whose language is the sole official
language, and national language of state, perform better economically than countries with diverse speech communities (Odumosu, 1991).

At the moment, the Nigerian National Policy on Education and Language (1981) encourages each citizen in the school system to learn, in addition to his own language, another major or minor language apart from the compulsory study of the English Language. By this English remains the common denominator in all issues of national integration and development: indeed, it is the only language that unifies the different ethnic groups in Nigeria and thus qualifies as a language of wider communication. English, has over the years, lost the property of being the exclusive right of the Englishman, indeed, some have tagged it as “a no man’s language”. Not minding this, as a single language for wider communication in Nigeria, it implies a single conceptual and cognitive framework for all Nigerians; also consequently it marks out a level of greater understanding, unity, integration and stability.


Ever since the first transatlantic two-way radio broadcast was made in 25th July, 1920, there has been so many landmarks in the the history of telecommunications. (Wikipedia, Internet source). Indeed, technology is the technical means people use to improve their surroundings. It is also the knowledge of using tools and machines to do tasks efficiently, as well as the ability to control the world in which we live. Furthermore, technology is the use of knowledge, tools, and systems to make life, and living, easier and better. Technology can be used to improve ones ability to work and communicate better; in a nutshell, technology can be understood to embrace the knowledge embodied in human action to achieve practical results. However, the importance of technology would be overshadowed if the means of communicating or gaining access to these discoveries and breakthrough was not available.

This is where the Internet, an international community connected by computers, plays an important role. The Internet continues to create more awareness in new ways of using and thinking about language. Communication through the cyberspace provides users with a new kind of context for language use and conversation. It allows people to speak about themselves and their organization to millions of people around the world. This new technology has led to the reduction in the gap between spoken and the written text (Taiwo, 2004).

Bearing in mind the fact that the primary aim of the Internet is communication (Thomas, 1997), this is not far-fetched; more so, when one notes that the Internet evolved out of the need to communicate research breakthroughs to a wider audience. It must be emphasized that the web was originally developed at the European Organization for Nuclear Research – CERN – the world’s largest Particle Physics Laboratory, located between France and Switzerland. Tim Berners-Lee initiated this project in 1980 and the first website went on-line in 1991. The purpose of this was to provide a common (simple) protocol for requesting human readable information stored at a remote system, using networks. The overlying objective was to give scientists a way to exchange many kinds of data (text, graphics, figures database) using a concept known as hypertext for the purpose of advancing their research. The first website went on-line in 1991, while the first free World Wide Web – WWW – became operative on April 30, 1993. One agrees that the original purpose has exploded into one of the most promising method to access information worldwide.

Today, this form of communication has made access to information not only available at all times, but also has bridged the distance between continents and nations. Certainly, in many ways the Internet is a classless society (Thomas, 1997); in this millennium, this means of communication is not limited to a particular class, race, or nation: neither is it the exclusive preserve of any continent nor individual. As a matter of fact, the Internet has made the communication of technological advancement so easy, that it is almost magical in nature. A breakthrough in science can be transmitted to relevant quarters in a twinkle of an eye. Without leaving their shores, a group of interns in Asia can watch a live transmission of a surgical operation performed by specialist in American. This is technology and communication at work, collaborating together to ensure that life gets better by the seconds. The language of access of this recent ‘eighth wonder’ of the world, as of now, is English; it stands to reason then that knowledge of the English language will enhance a thorough utilization of the Internet.


Even though English has become widely accepted as the language of communication for many nations, yet the standard English, the variety that is cultivated in England and other places where English is used as a mother tongue, cannot remain ‘undefiled’ as English daily comes in contact with different people and cultures (Omodiaogbe, 2010). Thus, as earlier mentioned, a new genre of language appeared with the internet; this appearance evolved out of a need to maximize cost of 'browsing time' as well as the ability for the encoder of the message to communicate effectively with the decoder. Coupled with this is the fact that a text message is 160 characters in length, therefore text users have to adopted a means of communication that will condense words and make the most out of their message. As can be seen from the samples of portions of text obtained from a chat-group on the Internet, the encoders have adopted several ways to achieve the objective of being concise while ensuring that their messages are decoded rightly:

Sample A

barkat_900: hi [ = informal form of ‘Good day’ ]
ejiowuro2004: hi
ejiowuro2004: asl [ = age, sex, language i.e How old are you? Are you male or female? What nationality? ]
barkat_900: m/17/eg [= I am male, 17 years old and an Egyptian. i.e I am a 17 year old male from Egypt ]
barkat_900: u? [ = What about you? i.e. what is your own biodata? ]
barkat_900: are you there? [= response after a short period of silence]
ejiowuro2004: watz eg? [= What is eg? i.e. What do you mean by the word ‘eg’? ]
barkat_900: egypt [= Egypt (notice the violation of the rule of capitalization in the proper noun ‘Egypt’) ]
barkat_900: and u? [ = and you i.e. so how about your own biodata]
barkat_900: hi [ = Hello? i.e. Are you still on-line? ]
ejiowuro2004: o. [ meaning unsure ]
ejiowuro2004: 30/nig/f [ = 30 years old, Nigerian and female i.e. I am a 30 year old female from Nigeria ]
barkat_900: cool [ = slang for “that’s nice” ]
ejiowuro2004: how kool/ [ = How cool? i.e. What do you mean by ‘cool’? (notice the symbol used in place of the question mark. This ‘typographical error is common in the mad rush to maximise time)]
barkat_900: never mind [= do not worry]
ejiowuro2004: how/ [= why?]
barkat_900: are you there [ note the omission of the question mark]
ejiowuro2004: sure [ = yes I am there ]
barkat_900: k [ = ok i.e. That is okay (alright) ]
barkat_900: can i add u [ = can I include you i.e can I include you in my address book ? ]
ejiowuro2004: sure [ = yes i.e of course you can ]
barkat_900: k [ = that’s ok i.e that is alright by me ]
ejiowuro2004: where's k? [where is the location of ‘k’? i.e apparently misunderstanding the message]
ejiowuro2004: u dere? [ = are u still there? i.e. Are you still on-line? ]
BUZZ!!! [ = the person on-line uses this to draw the attention of the person he is chatting with, especially when he believes that the person’s attention has been detracted from the conversation ]
barkat_900: yea [ = yes i.e. I’m still on-line. ]
ejiowuro2004: is k kansass [ = is ‘k’ for Kansas? i.e. Does the ‘K’ you mentioned above mean Kansas City USA? Notice the flaunting of the rule of capitalisation in ‘kansas’
barkat_900: ok [ = okay ] barkat_900: k=ok [ ‘k’ means okay i.e. ‘k’ means ‘alright’]
ejiowuro2004: where u from plz [ =where are you from please i.e. Please which country are you
from ? ]
barkat_900: Egypt [ = from Egypt i.e. I am from Egypt ]
ejiowuro2004: dats nice….. [ = that’s nice i.e. That is wonderful! ]

Sample B

usman_badit: hello
usman_badit: r u there
usman_badit: ok
usman_badit: talk
usman_badit: about ur like
usman_badit: as u like
usman_badit: any topic
usman_badit: : any topic
ejiowuro2004: what food du u like?
oluwatayemise: hi
april4aries2000: a/s/l
oluwatayemise: f
oluwatayemise: u ?
april4aries2000: m
oluwatayemise: a?
april4aries2000: i am male
april4aries2000: do u mind
oluwatayemise: mind what?
april4aries2000: talking to me
oluwatayemise: ok
april4aries2000: where re u now
april4aries2000: am in lag
oluwatayemise: akure
april4aries2000: in school
oluwatayemise: yeah
oluwatayemise: u 2?
april4aries2000: business
oluwatayemise: wot biz?
april4aries2000: computer accessories
april4aries2000: can i ve ur number
oluwatayemise: not yet
april4aries2000: bye
oluwatayemise: bye
usman_badit: ur country?
ejiowuro2004: nigeria
usman_badit: u r gender?
ejiowuro2004: f
usman_badit: ok
usman_badit: so?
oluwatayemise: hi
april4aries2000: m/f
oluwatayemise: f
oluwatayemise: u ?
april4aries2000: m
oluwatayemise: a?
april4aries2000: i am male
april4aries2000: do u mind
oluwatayemise: mind what?
april4aries2000: talking to me
oluwatayemise: ok
april4aries2000: where re u now
april4aries2000: am in lag
oluwatayemise: akure
april4aries2000: in school
oluwatayemise: yeah
oluwatayemise: u 2?
april4aries2000: business
oluwatayemise: wot biz?
april4aries2000: computer accessories
april4aries2000: can i ve ur num?
oluwatayemise: not yet
april4aries2000: bye
oluwatayemise: bye

From the Sample B above the following devices can be observed:
i) Shortened forms: Such shortened forms as ‘wot biz’ for ‘What business do you do?’ ‘can i ve yr num’ for ‘Can I have your number?’ are used to make communication concise.
ii) Transcription of sounds: phonetic transcriptions also are used as a strategy for communication e.g. ‘wot’ = ‘what’ ‘u’ = ‘you’ ‘du’ = ‘do’
iii) The use of initial letters to represent the major idea intended. Also in this device only the first letters of the nouns in the sentence are written e.g. m = male, a/s/l = age/sex/location this simply means ‘How old are you, are you male or female and where are you from?’
iv) The use of numbers to represent words intended e.g. 2 = too
v) The way words are actually pronounced to replace a word. However in this particular case one suspects a morphological process as in u + r =‘ur’ for the word ‘your’ i.e. you + r.
In addition to those mentioned above, symbols such as $ (dollar or more generally money), € or & are perfect for use in Internet messaging. Other symbols such as @ (arobas or a commercial) are commonly used to replace the letter 'a' as in '@ +' (à plus. Also used are smileys, emoticons and other devices. Other methods to make messages more expressive or to reinforcing ones point include using capital letters (which usually means that the writer is shouting) or repeating final letters of words (eg AHHHHHHHHHHHHH! instead of Ah!).


As observed from the ongoing, users of the internet seem to have a foreknowledge of the codes they use to communicate their ideas to their decoder; these are signals that one is a member of that particular language community that has the ability to code switch as the situation demands. From the above one observes that brevity is not the only priority of text messages: self-expression is equally important. Also one suspects that there are specific strategies and rules applied to the evolution of Internet languages. Indeed, one notices a similarity between speech produced by L2 learners, which Little wood (1991) describes as showing marked resemblance to both early speech of children and pidgins. She further calls these ‘reduced systems’ or ‘simple codes’ that share the following features;

i) Many of the linguistic characteristics are the same e.g. redundant inflections and function words such as prepositions etc, which tend to be omitted, and thus meaning is signalled by word order. Also complex grammatical structures are avoided and vocabulary is reduced.
ii) In each case the reduced system satisfies a correspondingly reduced range of communication needs. These are mainly functional needs, since the system lacks the fine distinction that would transmit subtle concepts and subtle meanings.
iii) As the speakers’ needs become more complex or subtle, the system becomes more elaborate, moving through developmental sequences.
Apart from feature iii) above, one notices a similar strategy in the emergence of the language of the Internet. Probably with time, feature iii) will emerge; however, from the experience of the Internet one can identify the following process:
Internet natural temporary
Language  processing  representation  utterance
strategies of the system

This inference can be drawn from the final utterance of the language user. However, more materials need to be garnered, and indeed more research needs to be undertaken, to further cinch these facts. By so doing, such findings will go a long way to help teachers guide learners in evolving meaningful and better language learning strategies. These strategies will further enable students of tertiary institution to actualize effectively their primary goal of seeking knowledge in their various disciplines.


From the ongoing, it is obvious that access to Internet, and other IT facilities, requires a mastery of the language of access, namely English. As a matter of fact, exchanging e-mail messages or even chatting using Yahoo Messenger, or other such chat-room devises, can be a bonding activity. In that respect, writing these types of messages involves recreating a degree of intimacy and friendliness similar to that of face-to-face or phone conversations. All these, and a lot more, prove beyond reasonable doubt that language and communication must not only be advanced enough to meet the standards of world technological advancement, but must also be developed in order to meet with the prevailing needs and demands of the times.

It is from this perspective that the following recommendations are made:

 Bearing in mind the role of the Nigerian government in facing the challenges of evolving a national language, it is necessary that a study of the emergence of the language of the Internet might provide more insight into how this can be achieved. This suggestion is based on the fact that users of the Internet come from various countries. Like in the chat-group accessed by the researcher, there were people from Asian countries as well as from African countries who effectively dialogued together using writing as a communicative skill. Needless to say there was no formalised medium of learning the code of the language used for Internet communication, yet communication was effective.

 Literacy can only be achieved if the people are adequately empowered, therefore the Federal government and other affiliates who are engaged in the workaday activities of educational institutes should be education-friendly and ensure that every level of education is adequately funded and supported.
 The people must be motivated and challenged to be literate, thus adequate facilities such as cybercafés, books, and the likes should be made accessible to would-be learners. Advertisements on television, as well as interlude to films could go along way to sensitise the masses on the need to be literate.
 Cost of living should be made affordable for all, so that the learning populace can live decently, thus when poverty is truly eradicated, literacy would have the right of way.
 Education should be made affordable and accessible to all and sundry.

It is obvious that literacy in the 21st century has gone beyond the selected few. Of a truth, being educated is no longer a status symbol; more and more people have been sensitised to the importance of being literate. Indeed, the saying that knowledge is power is more relevant to this century. Nevertheless, for knowledge to be truly relevant for all it can only be channelled through language. In this century this language of power is English – it is without doubt the language of communication in the 21st century. True other languages are trying to make their appearance on the Internet, the latest being the Yoruba Language; however, the language of formal education in so many places is English. This is not to say that literacy is synonymous with English language. However, in countries like Nigeria it seems that English is the norm; anything outside it spells illiteracy.

It is obvious that only a minute percent of the world is literate. Thus, many more grounds must be covered to achieve total literacy. Without a doubt access to Internet facilities can narrow this gap. With the coming to age of the Open Universities, what better way to teach languages than with the instrumentality of the Internet. Indeed, the world is fast becoming a global village; cybercafés abound where individuals can not only communicate through writing within the twinkle of an eye, they can even view one another on video devices known as webcams (web cameras). No longer do citizens of this nation have to wait for months to be able to communicate with loved ones, or even receive valuable information that can make or mar their destinies, or affect their contributions to knowledge through research – this is indeed one of the gains of literacy.

Knowledge and information is power: however, literacy and effective communication can make this power a reality. But this reality needs to be handed over to others who will efficiently use this power to ensure that there is technological advancement and continual development within the nation; such beneficiaries need the tool of language to ensure its reality: they also need professional and proficient language teachers who, through a learner-friendly strategy, can help them achieve their dreams of being literate and useful to their country particularly in the 21st century. It is a welcomed development then that the dynamism of language is vibrant in the 21st century as observed through the emergence of new Englishes on the Internet; the question however is how far can the accepted rules of the structure of the English language be stretched to accommodate these emerging structures. In addition, one is curious to know whether these varieties will stand the test of time; surely, only time has the answers to these nagging questions.


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