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 International Journal of Academic Research in Education and Review
 

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International Journal of Academic Research in Education and Review

Vol. 2(1), pp. 17Ė22, January, 2014

ISSN: 2360-7866

DOI: 10.14662/IJARER2014.004

Full Length Research Paper

Effective Leadership at Vocational High School 1 Padangsidimpuan, North Sumatera, Indonesia

 

*Dr. Samakmur, MM; Prof. Dr. Rusdinal, M.Pd; Prof. Dr. Nurhizrah, M.Ed, Ed.D; and Prof. Dr. Kasman Rukun.

 

Program State University of Padang. *Corresponding author email: muhammad.kristiawan@yahoo.co.id

 

Accepted 30 January 2014

Abstract

 

This study was aimed to describe the role management of effective leadership of the principalís vocational high school 1 at Padangsidimpuan and the effective leadership on leadership style; giving motivation; and the credibility principalís vocational high school 1 at Padangsidimpuan. This research belongs to qualitative through first-hand experience, truthful reporting, and quotations of actual conversations. It aims to understand how the participants derive meaning from their surroundings, and how their meaning influences their behavior. Participants in this research are principal of vocational high school 1 at Padangsidimpuan; vice of vocational high school 1 at Padangsidimpuan; and the teachersí vocational high school 1 at Padangsidimpuan. Data were collected through interview; observation; and documentation. Findings show that effective leadership on vocational high school 1 at Padangsidimpuan run effectively. Schoolís principal benefits the power of the executive leadership and create an optimal harmony and minimize the weaknesses of schools through motivation and family relationships and commitment together to achieve schoolís goals. The principal uses executive leadership style, this style gives a lot of attention to the job tasks and working relationships. The principal optimizes the teachersí motivation by giving awards material and non-material rewards in the form of praise. The principalí credibility is shown on the attitudes and values that he always held steadfast in taking decisions.

Keywords: Effective Leadership, Principal, Vocational High School.

 

 

INTRODUCTION

The school principal is the highest leadership in the school plays an important role as determinants and policy makers at the school, because the school leadership can influence, encourage, guide, direct and move teachers, staff, students, parents and other relevant parties to work to participate in order to achieve the stated goals (Department of Education, 1999). Therefore, the principal's leadership is an important factor in determining the performance of the teachers and employees in performing their duties and the success of the organization (school) in the realization of a pre-planned program.


Principal is an active role which can improve effective teaching and improve teachersí performance. The role is important to understand the principal with an effective leadership and to assess the effectiveness of a leadership in an organization. The criteria commonly used as a benchmark an effective leadership is the result of cooperation between each unit in the organization and the achievement of an organization. A leader who can be said effective not only affect his own subordinates, but also can provide motivation to the subordinates to work with all the capabilities and the potential they have for an organization, and also create an environment and culture that positive. Many things determine success of an organization, and one of them is the ongoing leadership in an organization. He also can determine the success or failure of the organization. Leadership who is lacking on involving subordinates in decision making will lead to the existence of a relationship disharmony between leaders and subordinates.


Leadership is one of the factors that determine the success of the school management. As noted by Edgar (1985) there are at least four reasons why do we need leader figure: 1) a lot of people need a leader figure; 2) in some situations a leader needs to appear to represent the group; 3) as a risk in the event of takeover pressure on the group; 4) as a place to put down the power. Leadership is certainly a very good impact on whether or not the purpose of the organization is achieved, because leaders have an influence on the performance of the organization he leads. The ability to influence a group to achieve a goal is part of the leadership. Leadership concept closely related to the concept of power, the leaders gain power tool for influencing the behavior of his followers.


Leadership relates with the efforts in improving the quality of education, where the Principal is able to influence and motivate teachers and school community in order to achieve the objectives of schoolís vision and mission, and to achieve the professionalism of teachers and students learning achievement. Luthas (2000) gives three characteristics of effective leadership, they are: personality; motivation; and skills. Personality consists of self-confidence; tolerance; emotional maturity; and integrity. Motivation consists of: task and interpersonal needs; success orientation; power requirements; and expectations. Skills include: technical; interpersonal; and conceptual. They also state that the quality of schools is determined by the quality of school leadership. According to Sergiovanni (1992) effective leadership capable and can carry out the functions of management well. The effective leader is the leader of the group which members feel that their needs are met and their own leaders also feel that their needs have been satisfied. Robins (2003) states that the properties of an effective leader is adaptation situation; a quick learner with the social environment; ambitious and result-oriented; assertive; cooperative; reliable; dominant (desire to influence others); equipped with a strong; firm; confident; tolerant; and want to be responsible.


This is in line with the opinion of Gibson and Richard (1982) which state "principal is perhaps the single most significant factor in establishing an effective school" (The Principal is the most important factor in forming an effective school). Organization led by school principal which called an effective leader if he is able to run a process that encourages, influences and directs the activities and behavior of the group.


This view focuses on the principal to understand the duties and functions effectively as educational leaders. The school principal which called an effective leader if he is able to run a process that encourages, influences and directs the activities and behavior of the group, in this case the principal as someone who was given the task to lead the school, the principal is responsible for the achievement of the school. Therefore, the quality of school leadership is significant for schoolís achievement. The fact is happening now is different the leadership schoolís principal commonly creates disharmony atmosphere. Teachers sometimes have lack motivation, lack discipline as a result of poor school leadership models that are not accepted by subordinates or because of low motivation.


It becomes the gap between theory and reality. Leadership style of principal favored, high employee motivation and good discipline from teacher will give a good performance anyway. One of the main key to the performance of principals and teachers are called good if it has a good motivation to work. The main motivation is to create a work of passion, so that labor productivity increases, the benefits gained by working with people who are motivated are finishing job rapidly. This means that the job is done correctly and appropriate with standards within specified time scale, as well as teachers are happy to perform the work. Teachers will feel appreciated, this happens because the work was really valuable for teachers who are motivated, so that the teachers will work hard. Performance will be monitored by the individual concerned and would not require too much supervision (Evans, 1991). In addition to get the success of teaching and learning in schools, teachers are also required to discipline.


According Osborn (1980) work discipline problems are problems that need to be considered, because the presence of discipline can be affected by the effectiveness and efficiency in achieving organizational goals. This means that the discipline of work is one of the success factors for school purposes.


The school principal as a leader must be able to provide guidance and oversight, to improve the ability of staff, open two-way communication, and delegating tasks. Mulyasa (2011) suggested that the principal as a leader must have a special character which includes personality; basic skills; experience and professional knowledge; and knowledge of administration and supervision. Implementation of the ability to be possessed principals embodied in the performance of its duties include planning; organizing activities; directing activities; coordinate activities; carry out monitoring; evaluate activities; determine the wisdom; hold meetings; make decisions; organize learning; and conduct public relations.


The principalsí tasks are too much, so schoolís principals are required to have managerial ability. If they do not have, they will not be able to manage the school and schoolís atmosphere becomes disharmony. This was evidenced by the results of the study McClelland, Edward Murray, and Gordon W Miller which is cited by Argyris (1999), concluded that there is a positive relationship between achievement motivation and the achievement of the performance. This means that leaders, managers and employees who have high achievement motivation to achieve high performance and low performance on the contrary they are caused by the low work motivation. Furthermore Wahyudi (2009) shows that the success of the school principal is the person who sets the tone for the school. Therefore, it is said also that the success of the school is a school that has an effective leader. Their school leader described as a person who has high expectations of the staff and the students, school leaders are those who are highly knowledgeable about their duties and the environment to determine their school.


The behavior of school leadership, school work climate, and the principalsí managerial competence, together will have an effect on the activities of teachers in performing their duties. This situation will continue to encourage teachers to perform their duties as well as possible in order to achieve pre-defined goals for the school. To realize effective schools may only be supported by the principal as an effective educational leader. Fred M. Hechinger (in Schelechty, 2007) stated: "I never saw a good school led by a principal who is bad and bad schools led by principals that bad. I also never found the school failed to turn out to be successful, otherwise successful schools sudden decline in quality. Increase or decrease the quality of the school is dependent upon the quality of the schoolís principal". This view was advocated to the principals to understand the duties and functions as an educational leader carefully. An effective school principal as an educational leader should be able to improve schoolís achievement with demonstrating ability in managing schools, teachers, and students as a main component to achieve the goals of the school. From the various views above, it can be affirmed that effective leadership is the leadership that the principals focus to the development of instructional, organizational, staff, studentsí services, as well as relationships and communication with the public.


A principal's ability in leading will be very influential in improving work motivation of teachers. If the principal as leader perform their duties poorly, will result a lack of work motivation of teachers, so it will affect the effectiveness of the teacher, the role of the leader is very important because the leaderís role determines whether or not the goal is reached. Motivation can be optimized by knowing what are the factors that can affect the work motivation. These factors include the internal factors that originates from the individual and external factors that are sourced from outside the individual such as attitudes towards work, talent, interest, satisfaction, experience, and other like supervision, salary, environment, and leadership. According to Wahyudi (2009) lack of work motivation owned by the teachers in carrying out their duties are: (1) In carrying out the task still depends on the principal's supervision; (2) In entering class to teach is still late; (3) At the time the teacher cannot teach, teacher just gives a note to the students. To encourage students to learn more actively, the work motivation of teachers needs to be improved. Teachers who have a low level of motivation they cannot finish the job duties so that this situation will cause a bottleneck in achieving the outcome and will affect the effectiveness of the work.


In this study the author chooses vocational school by the reasons: first, vocational education emphasizes learning activities in the psychomotor domain. Second, vocational education oriented to the development of science and technology. Third, vocational education oriented to world of work. Vocational education graduates are more likely intended to meet the manpower requirements that are tailored to their respective expertise competence. Vocational High School is one of the aims of secondary education that prepares its graduates to be ready to work Referring to the contents of the Law of National Education System 20 of 2003, section 3 of the national education goals which states that vocational education is secondary education that prepares students to work primarily in the field of particular department. Vocational education is part of the education system that prepares a person to be able to work in a group work.


In today's era of globalization, the numbers of industrial jobs are very few, while the numbers of human resources were comparatively more likely to remain unemployed. By opening vocational education means will open up more jobs. Study at Vocational School more focused, specific, and focused on the option specified. In Senior High School, the students still have to look for the options what should be developed and of course, after entry into university, then knows what should be developed. It is supported by the research which is conducted by Schermerhom (1982) that the basic characteristics of the education curriculum was radically technical and vocational include: First, the success of vocational education curriculum is not simply measured by the successful of educational attainment, but also through the achievement of successful through performance-work in the world of work. Second, vocational education curriculum oriented to the students which is intended for graduates. Third, the success of the standard school curriculum should be accordance with the expected performance-work by the kind of work through the criteria set by the teacherís job standard. Fourth, the standard of success outside the school curriculum should be demonstrated through the success in the world of work. Fifth, the vocational education curriculum asks the greater governmentís involvement. Sixth, vocational education curriculum should be sensitive to the technology. Seventh, facilities owned should complete the procedure of procurement, storage, data collection, and replacement with clear procedures and programs that require cooperation and coordination with business and industry in the working community.


Based on the preliminary interview from the Chief of Department Education Padangsidimpuan found that effective school leadership is very difficult to find in Padangsidimpuan. Due to be principal with an effective leadership should involve a lot of components. This problem makes an author to do a research dealing with Effective Leadership Vocational High School 1 at Padangsidimpuan, North Sumatera, Indonesia.


RESEARCH DESIGN

This research belongs to qualitative. Denzin and Lincoln (1994) explains qualitative research is aimed at gaining a deep understanding of a specific organization or event, rather than a surface description of a large sample of a population. It aims to provide an explicit rendering of the structure of order, and the broad patterns found among a group of participants. It is also called ethno-methodology or field research. It generates the data about human groups in social settings. Qualitative research does not introduce treatments or manipulate variables, or impose the researcher's operational definitions of variables on the participants. Rather, it lets the meaning emerge from the participants. It is more flexible, that it can adjust to the setting. Concepts, the data collection tools, and methods of data collections can be adjusted as the research progresses. This research approach uses first-hand experience, truthful reporting, and quotations of actual conversations. It aims to understand how the participants derive meaning from their surroundings, and how their meaning influences their behavior. Participants in this research are principalís vocational high school 1 at Padangsidimpuan; vice of vocational high school 1 at Padangsidimpuan; and the teachersí vocational high school 1 at Padangsidimpuan. Data were collected through interview; observation; and documentation.


FINDINGS

a. The Principalís Management Practices

1) Planning
Planning is done by the Principal by involving teachers and school employees. planning steps include: a) set the vision, mission, goals, and strategies for developing school; b) analyze the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of school; c) develop a plan or set of activities for the achievement of objectives; and d) develop a range of alternative activities for the achievement of objectives, alternatives assessment and selection of the best alternative among different alternatives. Strategic Plan made within a period of four years and compiled.
2) Organizing
After the plan was agreed and defined, the next step is organize all the resources maximally useful to support the achievement of the targets. Organizing activities include: a) define the tasks to be done; b) personnel who have to work; c) grouping task; c) determine who reports to whom, and e) in which a decision must be taken.
3) Actuating

Activity is to provide encouragement, guidance, and influence on all members of the group to work consciously and voluntarily in order to achieve the goals set in accordance with the planning and organization patterns. This actuating problem basically is closely related to the human element so that its success is also determined by the ability of principals to touch the teachers and employees. Therefore, the principal is required to have capabilities in communication, creativity and high initiative and be able to encourage the spirit of the teachers. Principals should be able to move teachers that have high spirit, it is necessary to pay attention to the following principles: a) treating employees as well as possible; b) encourage the growth and development of talents and abilities of the employees without pressing the power creation; c) inculcate the spirit of the employees to keep and improve their talents and abilities; d) Appreciate every good work and produced the perfect employee; e) exercise prudence and justice to all employees without favoritism; f) provide the perfect opportunity for the development of its employee; and g) provide motivation to develop the potential of employees through ideas and innovations.
4). Controlling
Control is to ensure that the activities accomplished as planned and correcting any significant deviations. Control systematically measures: 1) pre-planning control which will minimize the need for corrective action; 2) establishment the standards that specify the level of performance for each job. Standards can be formal - written by a series of measurements and informal based experience. Standards can include cost, schedule, quality, or quantity. It can also the factors associated with customers, suppliers, equipment, and processes; 3) measurements to determine whether the standard has been met; and 4) corrective action immediately known when the expected performance is not met.


Controlling can be interpreted as one of the activities to determine the actual behavior of personnel in the organization and whether the level of educational attainment of educational objectives in accordance with the desired item and whether the necessary repairs.
The school principal has particularly the duty to conduct oversight, coaching or guidance to teachers and education personnel and administrators.


b. The Implementation of the Leadership

1) Principalís Leadership Style at Vocational High School 1 at Padangsidimpuan
Principal is the highest leader in the school. The pattern will be very influential leadership to the progress of school. Therefore, in modern education, school leadership needs serious attention. Principal leadership Style at Vocational High School 1 at Padangsidimpuan are influencing, encouraging, guiding, and move the teachers, staff, and the studentsí parents to participate in order to achieve the goals. In short, the principal has influence to make his subordinates to achieve the goals of the school.
2) Motivation from Principalís Vocational High School 1 at Padangsidimpuan
Principal motivates teachers in the form of creating a good school, giving teachers the opportunity to develop a career, thus enabling the teachers improve their spirit even though teachers as workers also require fulfilling the human needs. Motivation may come from control and influences. It encourages subordinates to perform their duties honestly, responsibility, effectively and efficiently.
Principal in shaping the work motivation of teachers can be done by performing an open management system that principals receive suggestions, criticisms that arise from all the good environment of teachers, employees and students. Principal also implements the division of tasks and responsibilities to the teachers, so that the teachers involved being better understand their respective duties and expected cooperation in order to achieve the goals. Principal applies downward vertical relationships that principal establishes a good relationship, foster loyalty and responsibility to the leader, and workplace tasks. Principal also make approaches to improve creativity, initiative to encourage subordinates. Principalís programs to increase the motivation of teachers such: briefing activities, awards for outstanding teachers, teacherís salary improvement, human resource development, provide training for teachers, giving attention, workshop, and outbound. Through these programs it is expected that the teachers are able to develop its processes and able to produce good output.
Principal optimizes the teachersí motivation by giving awards material and non-material rewards in the form of praise. Principalís award is given to the teachers who have successfully completed a good job, awards not only material but also a mental support to continue to develop their potential.
3) The Credibility of the Principalís Vocational High School 1 at Padangsidimpuan
The leader must be able to understand themselves first before understand others. That is, the principal must have the attitudes and values that he always held steadfast in taking decisions.


DISCUSSION

The findings above in line with the study which is conducted by Samidjo (2011) entitled Characteristics of an Effective Principal at Vocational School Merapi and Vocational School Merbabu. This study concluded that the head of Vocational School Merbabu showed prominent feature while the head of Vocational School Merapi showed the first feature of the same 'primus interpares'. Vocational School Merapi that has a characteristic 'primus interpares' tend to work alone, do not trust subordinates, and can bring up the rivalry. Vocational School Merbabu which has a characteristic 'punjul ing a papak, mrojol ing a Kerep' tend to lead a more democratic, open to criticism and have the moral strength to lead.


The findings are also supported by Farid Firman (2012) entitled Efforts to Improve the Performance of Teachers through School Leadership. The study reported that there are a number of factors that can affect the performance of teachers, ranging from achievement, recognition of responsibility, salary, personal relationships with subordinates, personal relationships with superiors, personal relationships between fellow colleague's personal life, and job security as well as the work itself. Surely it can happen when leaders-in this case-the principal is able to realize the factors which influence the performance of teachers. Being a leader is always full of challenges and surprises, although some leaders seemed to be able to manage without difficulty. Leadership is not an easy task, the job of a leader is not to solve problems themselves, and leaders do not face the challenge alone, but rather inspire those they lead to solve the problem.


The findings are also supported by the study which is conducted by Prof. Dr. Husaini Usman, M.Pd, M.T. and Nuryadin Eko Raharjo (2013) entitled Effective Principals for Vocational School on Curriculum 2013. Vocational School as producers of labor was watching it needs to be comparative and competitive advantages. Comparative advantage is the ability to produce goods or services with lower costs, greater quality, and a more appropriate time. Competitive advantage is the ability of the competitiveness of vocational graduates in the bargain goods or services that result in the job market. Excellence composition can also be interpreted in the competitiveness of vocational graduates get jobs as laborers or create jobs as entrepreneurial as vocational goal is to produce graduates who are ready to graduate to work as field expertise also work well with other people.


A problem now on vocational is no clear concept of instructional leadership in implementation curriculum 2013. Therefore, to meet the implementation instructional leadership on curriculum 2013 need to be investigated. There are nine models of leadership are: a) managerial; b) participatory; c) transformational; d) interpersonal; e) transactional; f) postmodern; g) contingency; h) moral; and i) learning. In this study selected for leadership learning: areas of expertise relevant to researchers, the most important of the components in improving the quality of learning.


The purpose of this research is the concept of finding a leadership strategy to meet implementation learning on curriculum 2013 so that the gap on vocational competencies of graduates with the competencies required to work decreased.


The weakness of the concept of learning leadership is too centered on their heads, so that school principals tend to be authoritarian in applying his leadership. System implementation of curriculum 2013 needs to change management and leadership, culture and climate of the school curriculum, educators and education personnel, facilities and infrastructure to produce competent graduates (Public Test Materials Curriculum 2013). The changes initiated by the principal because the principal is the agent of change.


The findings are also supported by the theory Jalal and Supriadi (2001) there are three strategies to enhance learning effectively, namely: (1) modeling, (2) monitoring, and (3) professional dialogue and discussion. Modeling means exemplary principals become an example or model emulated by teachers at his school. Monitoring means to monitor the performance of teachers to the classroom when teachers implement the learning process in the classroom. Professional meaningful dialogue and discussion means actively discuss, interactive, effective, aspiration, inspirational, productive, democratic and scientific performance assessment and follow-up plan and the process of improving the quality of student learning outcomes.


The study's findings on Jalal and Supriadi (2001) supports effective learning leadership if the principal is able to play a role as: (1) monitors the performance of teachers, (2) teacher performance assessors, (3) managing and mentoring and training arrangements, (4) development planners sustainable professionalism teachers, (5) coordinating teamwork, and (6) coordinating collaborative learning.


CONCLUSION

Based on analysis of the above findings, it can be concluded as follows:
a. The Principalís Management Practices
Effective leadership on vocational high school 1 at Padangsidimpuan runs effectively. Schoolís principal benefits the power of the executive leadership and create an optimal harmony and minimize the weaknesses of schools through motivation and family relationships and commitment together to achieve schoolís goals.
b. The Implementation of the Leadership
The principal uses executive leadership style, this style gives a lot of attention to the job tasks and working relationships. The principal optimizes the teachersí motivation by giving awards material and non-material rewards in the form of praise. The principalí credibility is shown on the attitudes and values that he always held steadfast in taking decisions.


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Evans JR (1991). Creative Thinking in the Decision and Management Sciences. Ohio: South Western Publishing Co. Ltd.


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Gibson JW, Richard MH (1982). Organizational Communication: A Managerial Perspective. Orlando, Florida: Academic Press Inc.


Jalal and Supriadi (2001). Educational Reformation on District Autonomy. Yogyakarta: Adicita Karya Nusa.


Luthas F (2000). Organizational Behavior. Sydney: Mc-Graw-Hill Internatioanl Book Company.


Mulyasa (2011). Management and Principalís Leadership. Jakarta: Perpustakaan Nasional.


Osborn R (1980). Organization Theory: An Integrated Approach. New York: John Wiley & Sons.


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Samidjo (2011). Characteristics of an Effective Principal at Vocational School Merapi and Vocational School Merbabu. Bandung: UPI Thesis.


Schermerhorn JR, Jr.James GH, Richard NO, Mary U(1982). Organizational Behavior. New York: John Wiley & Sons.


Schelechty GP (2007). Inventing Better Schools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.


Sergiovanni JT (1992). Moral Leadership Getting to the Heart. San Fransisco: Josey- Bass.


Wahyudi (2009). Principalís Leadership on Organizational Learning. Bandung: Albeta.


Usman H, Eko NR (2013). Effective Principals for Vocational School on Curriculum 2013. Jakarta: Research Project.


 

 

Accepted Date: 30, January 2014

 


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