International Journal of Academic Research in Education and Review

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International Journal of Academic Research in Education and Review

 Vol. 2(2), pp. 32-48, February, 2014

ISSN: 2360-7866

DOI: 10.14662/IJARER2013.014


Full Length Research Paper


The In-In-Out Programme of Teacher Education in Ghana: The Perception of Implementers


*1Amadu Musah Abudu and 2Anthony Kudjo Donkor


1Department of Health Science Education, Faculty of Education, University For Development Studies, P. O. Box TL1350, Tamale, Ghana.

2Faculty of Education, University for Development Studies, P. O. Box 1350, Tamale, Ghana.

*1Corresponding Author’s Email Address: amabudu2012@gmail.com.  Tel No: 0208293546


Accepted 26 February 2014



The purpose of the study was to evaluate the implementation of the In-In-Out programme of teacher education in Ghana. A sample size of 582 was selected using stratified sampling. Data were collected through the use of questionnaires, interviews and observation. The study was descriptive survey, which was targeted at finding out implementers’ perception of the success of the programme. Research questions were formulated to guide the study. The responses to the research questions were analysed using percentages and mean of means. The study revealed that the reasons that respondents gave for the introduction of the In-In-out programme were consistent with GES/TED (1998). The general level of importance placed on the objectives and activities was high. Further, there is no great difference amongst the implementers’ agreement to each objective and activity. The implementation was found to be hindered by non-availability and/or inadequacy of instructional materials and insufficiency of time allotted to the professional training aspect of the Programme. It was, therefore, recommended that intensive training of all implementers and trial testing of the materials should be done systematically before implementation of the programme. Also, link tutors and mentors should be given incentives to motivate them to carry out effective supervision.

Key words: In-In-Out programme, teacher education, mentee, mentor, link tutor.




Teacher education in Ghana has been going through a process of change and development. This change and development is taking place in response to the need to provide quality teachers for the education of the youth at all levels of the country’s educational system. This has become increasingly more demanding with respect to a rapidly changing society that needs a new crop of students who are molded to play new roles for the development of society. The skills and knowledge needed for successful living have altered radically, primarily as a result of the technological evolution and its impact on most jobs and professions. Thus, the educational system has to be restructured to ensure that the needs and aspirations of the society are always met. Schools by and large, need not gear towards the production of students for a nation that, in many ways, no longer exist. Based on this, policy makers keep on changing and implementing innovations in all facets of the educational system, more especially in teacher education for the purpose of training quality teachers.It is in recognition of this that the In-In-Out Programme was introduced in order to satisfy the extant needs of education in Ghana, more especially the demands of the Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education (FCUBE).

The In-In-Out Programme is a three year programme organized in such a way that mentees spend the first two years in the college and the final year in school-based activities where the mentees will be attached to a school to teach, but also continue to study based on distance learning materials. The component parts of the In-In-Out are: “In-In-“and “Out”. The In-In caters for the first two years of the mentees’ training on campus where they are taught using the conventional face-to-face methods. In the first year, mentees undertake an academic upgrading course, while in the second year they pursue a rigorous course in curriculum studies integrated with methodology. In addition, and as a component of the methodology course, mentees are given a series of demonstration lessons and prescribed periods of campus-based practice teaching mainly; micro and peer teaching.

The ‘Out’ segment of the In-In-Out Programme covers the whole of third year when mentees are posted to basic schools where they undertake school-focused training to develop practical teaching skills. It is ayearlong attachment of mentees to schools. The school attachment offers mentees opportunity to learn to teach by teaching. Apart from practical teaching they are also exposed to practical issues such as school management, disciplinary procedures, and staffrelations, as well as appropriate professional behaviour development both inside and outside the classroom.

The concern about teacher quality in many parts of Africa and the role teacher education should play in its improvement has attracted a lot more attention in recent times than ever before in the history of education on the continent. This is partly due to the increasing evidence that despite gains in basic schools’ enrolment, as a result of developing countries implementing programmes to provide primary education for all, gains in student achievement have been on the low side (Lockheed and Verspoor, 1991). The Education reforms programme introduced in Ghana since 1974 has resulted in “gross enrolment ratios at primary school level that shot up by about 37%, but the gains in student achievement expected from overall reforms has been less impressive” (Akyeampong, 2002, p. 11). Husen and Tuijman (1994) posit that “the costs of education in real terms per student and year in any country have tended to increase considerably with time whereas outcomes in terms of student achievement have not been enhanced proportionately” (p. 14).

Fobih, Akyeampong and Koomson (1999) assert that a significant part of the problem confronting pupils’ low academic performance has to do with teacher quality, poor instructional quality and the lack of professional commitment of teachers. This view of Fobih et al is consistent with the assertion of Akyeampong and Lewin (2002) that the content of teacher education programme in Ghana might be lacking in producing teachers capable of improving the quality of basic education.

Notwithstanding the need for quality teachers, research evidence in Ghana suggests that newly trained teachers are ill prepared to handle the new direction of the curriculum that was put in place as part of the 1974 Educational Reforms in the Primary and Junior Secondary Schools (MOE, 1996; Pecku, 1998). According to Koetsier and Wubbels (1995) most beginning teachers experienced a “reality shock” in their first year, when faced with the demands of a real classroom teaching situation and the gap between their ideals and the reality of everyday school life. Teacher education was, therefore, accused of failing to prepare student teachers for the reality of the teaching profession.

Studies have attributed the non-performance of teachers to three possible sources. First, the academic attainment of the teachers could be so low that they do not have mastery of the subject matter that they teach. Second, the way the teachers are trained may be such that as part of their training, the teachers may not be sufficiently exposed to real classroom situation or may not even acquire the minimal pedagogical skills required for imparting subject matter to their pupils. Third, low morale among teachers as a result of the poor conditions under which they work could lead to non-performance. Consequently, educational practitioners have been looking at ways of orientating the content of teacher education to meet the demands of the classroom. This has led to the continuous change of teacher education programme over time.

Statement of the problem

A study of trends in the pattern of teacher education in Ghana shows a continual change. Over the years various programmes have been implemented in teacher education in order to reflect the needs of the changing society. This is because the type of education that a country wants to a large extent determines the teacher education programme that is implemented. It is expected that the introduction of any innovation into an educational system should be accompanied with concrete steps to ensure that the resources (human and material) are consistent with the objectives and activities of the innovation. As Pollock (1987) posits that no course should be regarded as fixed over time, and that changes in student needs and interests should be continually reviewing course plans to ensure their continued relevance and currency.

Therefore, the task of bringing a programme in line with the changing needs and demands of the society requires the use of evaluation devices.Indeed, the future of the In-In-Out Programme in Ghana depends on obtaining data in order to enable action to be taken on its strengths and weaknesses. It is only through evaluation that one can identify whether or not the programme is meeting what it is set forth to do.This has been the motivating factor that has led the researcher to find out what actually exists in the classroom vis-à-vis the programme guidelines.

Major trends in Teacher Education in Ghana

In order to establish the rationale for the introduction of In-In-Out Programme, it is essential to give a concise account of the major trends of teacher education in the country since 1940. McWilliam and Kwamena-Poh (1975) traced the development of teacher education in Ghana. According to McWilliam and Kwamena-Poh, a two-year training programme was launched upon the recommendations of the 1937/41 Education Review Report. Successful candidates were awarded a Teacher’s Certificate ‘B’. The main objectives were to cut down on costs in teacher education and to meet the increasing demand for teachers at the primary level of education. After two years teaching on completion of the initial training, Certificate ‘B’ teachers were given further two years training to qualify for the Certificate ‘A’ Post ‘B’. The immediate policy objective to have qualified teachers for primary education was largely achieved in the early 60’s and the certificate ‘B’ programme was phased out in 1962.

The accelerated development plan of education that was launched in 1951, sought to address the problem of demand for teachers (McWilliam and Kwamena-Poh, 1975). It sought among other things, to expand teacher training in order to provide teachers for the universal education policy. Antwi (1992) on his part observes that prior to the 1951 plan, there were nineteen pre-University Training Colleges offering a variety of courses leading to Two-year Post Middle Teacher’s Certificate A and then Two-year Post ‘B’ Teacher’s Certificate A, Four-year Post Middle Teacher’s Certificate A and then Two-year Post-Secondary Teacher’s Certificate ‘A’. The implementation of the Accelerated Development Plan of education in 1951 also brought in its wake a large number of schools that required teachers. As such, pupil teachers were recruited to fill the vacuum. Those who were recruited were given six weeks intensive training to prepare them to teach. In 1953 Ten Pupil Teachers Centres were established in the country to train the pupil teachers that were recruited.
According to Antwi (1992), another event that occurred in the history of teacher education was the introduction of specialist courses in the training colleges. He further states that the Education Report of 1960-62 shows that in 1960 a number of specialist courses were established mainly for housecraft, education for the deaf, rural science, agriculture science and general science. During the 1964/65 academic year, specialist courses for teachers were introduced in nine training colleges. These specialist courses were, however, phased out in 1976 to make way for the three-year post-secondary quasi-specialist programme. The aim of this programme was to prepare qualified teachers for the Junior Secondary School. The specialist training colleges were brought together to Winneba to form the nucleus of the specialist courses. This led to the opening of seven Diploma Awarding Institutions in the country.

The quasi-specialist course was also phased out in 1979. The reason being that the products of this programme could not all be absorbed by the then existing junior Secondary Schools. Also, the surplus teachers could not function successfully as general teachers in the classroom in the Primary and the then Middle Schools. The Three-year post-secondary course was later introduced alongside the specialist course. The three-year post-secondary programme saw light when the specialist course was phased out in 1976. Another significant event in the development of teacher education was the introduction of modular programme. The three-year post-secondary programme has itself undergone major structural changes. At the initial stage, it emphasizes subject specialization (two-subject specialization in the final year). This programme was officially phased out in 1998/99 academic year. Then came primary teacher education programme, which was offered in ten training colleges in the country. It was also phased out in 2001/02 academic year. The current programme called general teacher education programme available in all the forty-one training colleges in the country was launched at the beginning of the 1998 /99 academic year. This programme is referred to as In-In-Out Programme.

Aims and Objectives of Teacher Education

Lockheed and Verspoor (1991) posits that “the goal of teacher education is not to indoctrinate teachers to behave in rigid, prescribed ways, but to encourage teachers to think about how they teach and why they are teaching that way” (p. 98). This is so because, the process of becoming and being a teacher is increasingly being acknowledged as a multifaceted endeavour, which involved the person intellectually, socially, morally, emotionally and aesthetically. Teachers must be prepared in such a way that they are not only good classroom operators but also community leaders. They must be trained not only in the techniques of teaching young people but also in adult education and group dynamics (Bishop, 1986). Teachers need to have a deep conception of the nature of society and of their own role in influencing the shaping of social goals.

According to Hollins (2011), learning to teach is a complex and multidimensional process that depends on the ability to synthesize, integrate, and apply knowledge from multiple sources in constructing an understanding of how to facilitate learning in complex dynamic contexts with a multiplicity of aspects that require attention and action. He further states that the challenge for teacher educators is to provide opportunities for teachers to acquire deep knowledge and understanding in a wide range of areas and to learn the professional discourse and practices and the conditions of engagement and enactment in ways that facilitate learning.The overriding aim of teacher education is to facilitate and develop in would-be teachers the self-awareness and interpersonal skills that would enable them to function better in the world of school. The structured activities for education and training are the fundamental ingredients for developing in mentees the kind of professional perspective that enables them locate their teaching in the wide context of the school and community. Accordingly, Hargreaves and Fullan (1992) contend that one way of providing teachers with opportunities to teach is to equip them with the knowledge and skills that will enable them provide improved opportunities for all their pupils to learn.

The fact is that a teaching force that is more skilled and flexible in its teaching strategies and more knowledgeable about its subject matter is a teaching force more able to improve the achievement of its pupils. Apart from incorporating experiences that lead to sound knowledge of subject matter there is also the need to consider helping the would-be teacher to understand him/herself. Acknowledging that teacher development is also a process of personal development marks an important step toward the improvement of the teaching. Tozer, Violas and Senese (1995) stated the goals of teacher education as: to make the education of teachers intellectually more solid; to recognize differences in teacher’s knowledge, skills and commitment, in their education, certification and work;to create standards of entry to the profession-examinations and educational requirement that are professionally relevant and intellectually defensible; to connect out institutions to schools (for teacher preparation and development); and to make schools better places for teacher to work and to learn. Thus, teacher education entails having opportunities to develop the personal qualities, commitment and self-understanding essential to becoming a sensitive and flexible teacher. Wise(1996) is of the view that a complete and flexible teacher is a combination of virtues, which include the ability to sustain the interest of pupils from varied intellectual background and intelligence quotients, scholarly knowledge of varied school subjects and the ability to establish cordial working relations with colleagues. Tamakloe (1997) sharing a similar view pointed out that teacher education should develop a kind of personality that has the attributes of competence and maturity of a dynamic leader. He posits that “education is the making of men; not training men to make things” (p. 62). It is for this reason that he collapsed the numerous objectives of teacher education into three main objectives. These are:the area of cognitive development and acquisition of teaching skills; the development of the ability to examine and identify education and teaching problems and to solve them satisfactorily; and the production of mature teachers capable of contributing to the creation of significant and creative personal and inter group relations. Teacher education, therefore, seeks to develop the individual in the matters of head, heart and hand. This will, by and large, make the would-be teacher more responsible in the classroom and the society at large.

Professional Preparation of the Teacher

In the words of Arends (1991):

It is no longer sufficient for a teacher to be warm and loving toward children, or is it sufficient for them to employ teaching practices based solely on intuition, personal preference, or conventional wisdom-teachers are held accountable for using teaching practices that have been shown to be effective, just as members of other professions are held to acceptable standards of practice (p. 1).

What can be filtered from this view is that the preparation of teachers should take into account an array of issues such as: sound knowledge of subject matter based on teaching and learning to guide the art of teaching; a repertoire of best teaching practices (methods, strategies, procedures) and ability to use these to help learners understand the world of learning and their capabilities; to view learning to teach as a life-long process and have dispositions and skills for working toward improving teaching; always seeking for the best alternative in effecting desirable behaviours in learners and at the same time helping learners to be creative and independent and; a leader and social being capable of adapting to any environment in the mounting frustrations. According to Renes (1970) what is taught at the pre-service institution greatly influences the future career of mentees. To him, the manner of teaching at the training colleges influences mentees’ professional efficiency as they teach at the basic level schools. Consequently, Lockheed and Verspoor (1991) emphasize that effective pre-service training need to build on a sound knowledge of the curriculum, pedagogical skills and practice teaching under the supervision of an experienced and capable teacher. Wragg (1993) holds a different view and asserts that:

If teaching children is one of the most important responsibilities a society can ask some of its members to undertake, then the challenge to nurture and enhance the professional skills of each new generation of teachers for the vastly complex world of the twenty-first century, and sharpen the proficiency of teachers already in post must be an equally valuable assignment (p. 196).

The view of Wragg goes to augment the need to constantly expose teachers already in the system to new ideas and values of the society so that they may not lag behind societal development. Cooper (1990) sharing similar view posits that proficiency in teaching will not be achieved as a result of formal training alone (pre-service training), it is a lifelong process involving both formal training and an unending programme of on-the-job training. Veenman (1984) hints that the “transition from teacher training to the first teaching job could be a dramatic and traumatic one” (p.143). He, therefore, suggests that problems faced by beginning teachers in their first years should be referenced to when designing pre-service and in service programme. Generally, most trainees feel stressed when facing with the realities of teaching and find it difficult to handle the situation in classroom teaching (Nguyen, 2013).To address this, Uusimaki (2013) suggest that the mentor should provide good model teaching practice, stimulate reflection, be encouraging, provide counselling and provide constructive daily feedback to the mentee.

The views presented show that teacher preparation and development should be a continuum from pre-service through induction to continuing professional development (in-service). These three phases should be given maximum attention for the proper development of a teacher capable of facing classroom challenges. The induction preparation should consist of seminars and workshops that should aim at providing the newly trained teacher with information concerning personal adjustment, practices and values of school and society, and the benefits and challenges of the teaching profession. These kinds of information will enable the newly trained teacher to acquaint him/herself properly with the school and community, an indicator to effective teaching. The in-service programme constitutes exposing practicing teachers to new values and roles of society and school, in particular. It is also a process of introducing suchteachers to new techniques of teaching or new ways of doing things in the classroom as well as new concepts and theories. The pre-service should provide would-be teachers sound knowledge of subject matter, ways of dealing with classroom situation, parents or communities in which they will be teaching and methods of teaching. This aspect of preparation rests on three components: general education; specialized subject, field education and professional education. That is, mentees should be taken through all the topics of their subject of specialization and the topics they will be teaching. This will enable them have sound knowledge over and above those they will be teaching.

Stone (1985) admits that practice teaching is only one of a variety of terms applied to that part of a mentee’s professional training that involves the mentee trying to teach pupils. He mentions other terms used more or less synonymously as, teaching practices, students teaching, school experience, field experience, and practicum. In response to the benefits that can be derived from teaching practice, Kasanda (1995) thinks that the inclusion of teaching practices in the preparation of would-be teachers allows them to face their real world of work before they actually join the profession of their choice. According to him, it is an era that the would-be teacher faces the school he/she will be teaching, become acquainted with the school problems and deficiencies, and, hopefully, utilize those to prepare well-adjusted and effective teachers for the school system. In similar proportion, Burr, Harding and Jacob (1950) believe that it is during the teaching practice period that the mentee assumes the role of an actual classroom teacher to work with pupils. It enables the mentee to put into practice the techniques learnt during methodology classes. Burr et al (1950) state that it helps mentees to gain insights into the actual problems of classroom teaching and to acquire the abilities and skills inherent in actual teaching situations thereby bringing mentees into intimate contact with pupils. Teaching practice is a means of equipping would-be teachers with special competencies that distinguish them from untrained teachers. According to Dwight and Ryan (1969) other professions have built into their training programme opportunity for “safe practice”. By safe practice they mean giving practice training to their apprentices with minimum amount of risk. According to them, the law student has his/her “moot court”, while the medical student has his/her “Cadaver” (corpse for practice). They, therefore, intimate that microteaching is given as a safe device to prepare mentees for teaching. This is a technique whereby a mentee teaches a small size of a class for a brief period of about five minutes and teaches a small aspect of a lesson. Watson and Osibodu (1987) support the safe device and postulate that learning to teach by teaching friends is another safe device for equipping mentees with the skills and techniques of teaching. They refer to this type of teaching as peer teaching. They define peer teaching as a method, whereby one of the mentees assumes the position of a ‘teacher’ with the others acting as ‘pupils’. Role-playing like this, gives the mentee valuable insights into some of the emotions experienced by practicing teachers. In support, Uusimaki (2013) indicate that good mentoring involves caring for the mentee and to be able to communicate clearly what the mentee needs to work on whilst on the practicum. He further states that a good mentor meets the needs of the mentees that he/she is mentoring, and to enable them develop their skills ... a good mentor does not only go through the theory, they need to be able to demonstrate what they say in practice.

Research Design

The study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of the In-In-Out Programme of Teacher Education in Ghana. This involves, among other things, exploring the conditions that necessitate the designing and implementation of the programme, the characteristics of implementers (link tutors, mentees and mentors), probing the adequacy of resources, determining the strategies used, gauging the attitudes of implementers, and describing the effectiveness of the programme on mentees. The study was structured basically within the framework of the descriptive research design. According to Ary, Jacobs and Razavieh (2006), descriptive research studies are designed to obtain information, which concerns the current status of phenomenon. The use of descriptive research will enable the researcher bring to light the status of the implementation of the In-In-Out Programme in the colleges. This type of design is preferred because the extent to which the In-In-Out Programme is implemented in the classroom by the implementers’ deals with attitudes. The descriptive design will, therefore, provide the picture of the implementation process and also expose the attitudes of implementers towards the programme. Furthermore, it can be used with greater confidence with regard to particular questions of special interest or value to the researcher. Also in-depth follow-up questions can be asked and items that are unclear can be explained using descriptive design (Cohen, Manion and Morrison (2007)).

Notwithstanding the advantages associated with descriptive survey, Creswell (2003) contends that errors and inadequacies of survey research in education appear at many points from the way problems are initially chosen and defined through selection of population and sample to items construction and analysis of resulting data. Accordingly, Gall, Gall and Borg (2007) postulate that descriptive statistical analysis limits generalization to the particular group of individuals observed and that no conclusions are extended beyond this group. Descriptive research surveys therefore focus on ascertaining the status of a defined population in relation to certain variables. Cohen, et al. (2007) are of the view that there is the difficulty of ensuring that the questions to be answered by respondents when using the descriptive survey results can vary greatly depending on the exact wording of questions or statements. Another disadvantage of the descriptive survey is that it may produce untrustworthy result because they may delve into private and emotional matters that respondents may not be completely truthful about. In spite of these disadvantages, the descriptive survey design is considered the most appropriate for carrying out the study on the evaluation of the In-In-Out Programme of teacher education. This is because the effect of the programme on mentees depends on how a group (respondents) perceived it.


The population of the study was all third year mentees of 2001/2002 academic year, link tutors and principals of teacher education in the country; first batch of teachers of the In-In-Out Programme; and selected mentors from the schools of attachment. The essence of this structure is to collect detailed and objective information as far as possible from different groups of people responsible for the implementation of the In-In-Out programme. The principals provide a conducive environment and play a supervisory role in the successful implementation of the programme. The selection of tutors is based on the fact that they are the implementers (i.e., they put the programme into real use in the classroom) of the programme. The choice of third year mentees and first batch of teachers is also based on the fact that they have experienced all the stages of the programme. Finally, mentors are necessary for the study since they guide the mentees throughout the one-year period of attachment. The total population was, therefore, about 6,600 respondents. The accessible population, however, was mentees, tutors and principals in the seven colleges that were drawn from the 41 colleges in the country. The first batch of teachers of the programme and mentors from the districts where these colleges do attachment were also part of the accessible population.

Sample and Sampling Techniques

Four categories, comprising 7 principals, 120 tutors, 350 mentees and 70 first batch of teachers of the programme and 100 mentors constituted the sample for the study. Thus, the total sample size was 647 participants. The sampling techniques employed for the study were the proportional stratified and simple sampling. According to Gay (1992) proportional stratified sampling is more convenient when sub-groups in the population are represented in the sample in the same proportion that they exist in the population” (p.129). He further stated that “any location, within which we find an intact group of similar characteristics (population members), is a stratum” (p.132). Since the colleges are spread all over the country and each location has its peculiarity, it will be proper to use stratified sampling. Also, the procedure ensures proportional representation of each part of the country for the study.


All the forty one (41) colleges in the country were put into four zones, based on their location. These zones formed the strata from which the colleges were selected.In an attempt to obtain a representative sample of the colleges from the four zones for the study, the names of the Teacher Colleges in the country were collected from the Institute of Education, University of Cape Coast,Cape Coast. These zones formed the sub strata from which the appropriate proportional representations were identified. The names of the various colleges were given code numbers for sample selection. From the list, another sampling frame was constructed. The proportionate number of colleges from each zone required for the study was determined. This was about 17.1% i.e. the total number of colleges to be sampled (7), divided by the total number of colleges in each zone was multiplied by 0.171 to obtain the number of colleges to be sampled from the zone. For example Northern zone has seven Teacher Training Colleges. This was multiplied by the 0.171 to obtain 1.19 which was approximated to one college. Similarly Eastern zone has sixteen colleges. This multiplies by 0.171 to give 2.7 which was rounded to 3 and so on.

The simple random sampling was then used to select the sample colleges from each zone. Each college was given a code and this was written on a piece of paper. These pieces of paper were folded and mixed together. The piece of paper wee then picked one after the other without seeing through the pool. This was done with replacement in order to maintain the same probability for each sample college. This process continued until the needed number or sub-sample colleges of 17.07% was obtained for all the four zones. The number of colleges selected from each zone is shown in Table 1.

To ensure the representativeness of the sample for the study, the class lists of mentees and the list of tutors in the six colleges were collected. A stratified proportional sampling technique was employed in selecting mentees and tutors from the lists obtained for the study. This was to ensure gender representation. By this procedure, male and female sample size was selected in proportion of the total enrolment of third year mentees and tutors respectively.

Finally, simple random sampling was used to select individual respondents from each sample group for the study. In this method, pieces of paper were cut using the same measurement and the serial number of each mentee was written on each piece of paper. Each piece of paper was rolled and mixed together. The pieces of paper were then kept in a container and tossed so that they were thoroughly mixed. The rolled papers were picked one by one without the selector seeing through the pool. This was done with replacement in order to maintain the same probability for each respondent to be picked. Thus, when one is picked, it was recorded and put back into the container. In the event of the same number being drawn twice, the second drawing was ignored and the number was returned to the pool. The activity continued until the needed number of respondents was obtained. The whole activity was repeated in order to obtain the required number of tutors for the study.

The list of first batch of teachers of the programme was obtained from the selected District Education Offices. The same simple random sampling, using the lottery method, was employed in selecting schools in which first batch of teachers were posted. That is, each school was given a serial number. These serial numbers were written on pieces of paper and folded. The folded papers were then picked one by one without the selector seeing through the pool. Each time a school was drawn, the number of first batch of teachers in that school was taken until the required number of first batch of teachers was obtained.

The mentors were selected on the basis of convenience. All mentors who were available at the time the researcher visited the school were selected until the required number was obtained. The detailed sample size is illustrated in Tables 2 and 3.





Research Instruments

An eclectic approach using different tools was employed to obtain the necessary data and to address the research questions. This included the use of questionnaires, semi-structured interviews and observation. Together, they provided rich sources of detailed information and ensured validation of the findings through triangulation. Documents that furnished secondary data were the syllabuses and the policy document guiding the implementation of the programme. These documents
were analysed with respect to what happens in real classroom situations. This provided the basis for judging the worth of the actual implementation relative to the intended implementation of the programme.

Data Collection Procedure

The instruments were personally administered by the researcher to respondents in their various colleges, and places of practice in the case of the mentees. With the permission of the college authorities, the researcher met the selected tutors at their respective colleges, gave out the questionnaire and explained to them each item of the questionnaire, respondents were then allowed to respond to the items on the questionnaire.In each college, the respondents were informed that the completed questionnaires would be collected back in a week’s time. This was to give them enough time to respond to all the items on the questionnaire since they were many. The first visit to each college was used for the administration of the instrument, while the second and subsequent visits were used to interview the Principals and to collect the completed instruments from the respondents. Out of the 640 questionnaires administered, 575 representing 89.8% were retrieved.

With the students, the researcher located their place of practice and asked for permission from the District Directors of Education to administer the questionnaire. The researcher administered the questionnaire in the same manner as was done for the tutors, but the completed questionnaires were collected the following day. The researcher personally observed mentees teaching a few classes and recorded what took place in the classroom. These pieces of evidence were compared with what the policy document entails.Finally, the researcher had a face-to-face talk with the principals of the seven colleges about how the programme was being implemented in their respective colleges. The prepared interview guide was used. The researcher recorded all that the principals said. The researcher spent a week in each college. The administration of the instrument took a period of 70 days to complete.

Data Analysis

The researcher requested for the syllabuses and the policy document on the programme. These documents served as a reference point from which the researcher was able to determine whether or not the activities on the ground (i.e. the use of the programme) were making any impact on the mentees.The responses were edited, coded and scored. The scores for each respondent were summed across the items to obtain their final raw score. Simple percentages and frequency tables were used to analyze the items. In a few cases, the mean of means was used to analyze certain variables. The analysis was done based on each research question.


Tozeret al (1995) contend that one dimension of professional preparation in other fields is the clinical internship in which students practice their craft for the period of one or more years under the guidance of practicing professionals. In the teaching profession, practical preparation requires a mentee to undergo a structured internship before being admitted to practice. Internship provides training and gives guidance and support to beginning practitioners. This is what In-In-Out Programme seeks to do. The policy document guiding the implementation of the In-In-Out Programme refers to teacher trainees as mentees; classroom teachers as mentors; and tutors at the training colleges as link tutors. Koetsier and Wubbels (1995) contend that beginning teachers experience a ‘reality shock’ in their first year, when faced with the demands of teaching and the gap between their ideals and the reality of everyday school life. According to them teacher education has failed to prepare student teachers for the reality of the teaching profession. To cope with this shock, Koetsier and Wubbels contend that there is the need for mentees to undergo some kind of training under mentorship. In support of this, Veenman (1984) posits that the transition from teacher training to the teaching job can be a dramatic and traumatic one. All these views, therefore, justify the introduction of the In-In-Out Programme in Ghana.

Responses of research questions made by respondents under the study include:

How adequate are resources (in terms of teaching staff, teaching learning materials, laboratories and transport) in the colleges for the colleges for the successful implementation of the programme? The responses of tutors and mentees were used to analyse this research question. In recognition of the importance that resource materials play, the present study attempted to find out whether required teaching-learning resource materials were available and adequate in the colleges at the time of implementation of the In-In-Out programme. The responses are summarized in Table 4.

Table 4 shows that most facilities were not available in the colleges and all the colleges claimed that they did not have teachers’ handbook. However, 82.2% of the respondents claimed that their colleges had adequate syllabuses and 92.2% of them said that the physical infrastructure of their colleges was adequate. Respondents were requested to indicate how adequate the period allocated to the component part of the In-In-Out Programme was. Table 5 gives the responses of respondents.

From Table 5, it is clear that a large proportion of the respondents (85.8%) said that the time allotted for first year observation was adequate and 84.1% of them claimed that the time allotted for teaching of content was adequate. However, time allotted for the practical training aspects of the programme, visits by link tutors and tutorials by link tutors was inadequate.





How effective are tutors using the strategies stipulated in the policy document guiding the implementation of the programme?

The implementation of the In-In-Out Programme requires link tutors and mentors to give support to mentees during school-based attachment to enable them acquire basic skills in teaching. The other strategy used in transacting the programme was the use of appropriate methods of teaching. This research question was analyzed using the responses of tutors, mentors and mentees. Table 6summarises the effectiveness of the support that link tutors offer to mentees.

As shown in Table 6, the most effective supports given to mentees were to discuss mentees lesson plans with them and help reorganize mentees lesson delivery. The least supports given to mentees were to discuss distance learning material with mentees and help mentees organize their circle discussion with mean values of 1.06 and 1.25 respectively. Respondents were required to state the support that mentors gave to mentees. Each respondent stated one or more supports that mentors gave to mentees. The responses are captured in Table 7.

From Table 7, it could be observed that a relative frequency percentage of 36.3% of the respondents regarded class management as the most common support given to mentees. The next common support given to mentees was guiding lesson planning and delivery, and the supply of teaching learning materials. That the most frequently used method was discussion. Peer teaching was the second method frequently used by tutors to teach. This finding is consistent with the policy document that stipulates that peer teaching should be factored into teaching of content integrated with methods.

Table 8 summaries respondents’ views on the number of times that link tutors visit schools of attachment.

In Table 8, it can be observed that more than half (53.7%) of the respondents stated that link tutors visit schools of attachment termly and 21.2% of them claimed that link tutors visit schools monthly. Only 8.2% of the respondents asserted that link tutors visit school weekly. However, 16.9% of the respondents stated that link tutors visit schools of attachment every other week or irregularly. When asked to list the challenges encountered so far in the implementation of the In-In-Out Programme, respondents raised pertinent issues. These responses are presented in Table 9.

The responses in Table 9 show that nearly all the respondents mentioned the same challenges encountered during the implementation of the problem. This is evident from relative frequency percentage between 4.3 and 17.1 for all the challenges identified.

Respondents were requested to suggest ways by which the implementation of the In-In-Out Programme could be improved. All the respondents offered suggestions, which are presented in Table 10.

Responses as shown in Table 10 reveal that a majority of the respondents indicated the dire need to have regular in-service training for mentors. One principal of a college said:

Mentors must be trained to gain insight into the structure and content of the programme. There should be regular training to continuously update mentors’ knowledge aboutthe programme and even provide opportunity for new teachers(mentors) who take up places of old mentors who have left (Personal Communication, March, 2013).

A link tutor wrote:
“Mentors may be complacent, they need to be reminded.” It can be inferred from these responses that regular in-service training not only improves efficiency but also makes mentors to accept ownership of the programme.

Concerning regular supervision and monitoring of mentees’ work, a relative frequency percentage of 18.6 of the respondents view it as essential to professional development of mentees. One mentee wrote: “we need our teachers to see us working in order to boost our moral”. Clearly, the presence of link tutors provides the opportunity for fruitful interaction among mentee, mentor and the link tutor. Thus, mentees would be in better position to reorganize their lesson preparation and delivery. One of the means of improving the quality of education management under the new educational reform programme is to strengthen supervisory capacity at all levels so that absenteeism among teachers and learners would reduce and effective use of instructional time ensured (GES, 1998). This objective appears not to have been achieved as evidenced by suggestion of the respondents. An effective monitoring system, therefore, needs to be put in place at the schools of attachment. The provision of vehicles for supervision as suggested by respondents is the first step in ensuring proper supervision; hence it is in the right direction.

Touching upon the urgent need for motivating all implementers the respondents made a number of suggestions. The highlights are that the training allowances given to mentees should be increased. The essence is to enable them live a decent life at their places of attachment and to enable them buy teaching learning materials to supplement those of the schools. Both tutors and mentors should be given incentives for the extra work they do. A tutor said “we incur some cost during the supervision”. Another said, “We must be rewarded for the extra work that we do which include risk allowance in the cause of making journeys to schools of attachment”.

A relative frequency percentage of 16.0 of the respondents also suggested that teacher training college and school of attachment should be provided with teaching learning resources. The provision of textbooks and other audio-visual resources will guide both tutors and mentees to make teaching and learning real to pupils.The first research question sought to find out the level of importance implementers attach to each of the objectives and activities of the programme. The result indicated that the programme was implemented among others to exposed mentees to the challenges of the teaching profession. The results were consistent with the observation of Tozeretal (1995) who state that one of the goals of teacher education is to connect training experiences to classroom teaching.









The general level of importance placed on all the objectives was high as evidenced by the mean of means of 3.42. The mean standard deviations of 0.63 indicate that there was no great difference amongst the respondents’ agreement to each objective and activity. This would seem to suggest that respondents would support the implementation of the programme. Interview with the principals also revealed that they had sound knowledge of the objectives of the programme and they placed premium on all its objectives. One principal states ‘The old programme produced teachers who were aliens to the environment they will be teaching in, content not related to what they would be teaching and lack appropriate methods that could be used for a particular topic in a subject. But the new programme is capable of introducing mentees to the environment they would be teaching in and helping them to select appropriate methods of the teaching profession’.

The views of respondents about the objectives of the In-In-Out Programme were consistent with GES/TED (1998), which claims that the In-In-Out Programme seeks to overcome the inadequacies in the old programme. Based on the objectives stated in the policy document, it is evident from the data that a large proportion of implementers had sound knowledge of and placed much importance on each of the objectives of the programme as set out by GES/TED (1998).

The second research question sought to find out the attitude of implementers towards the objectives and activities of the programme. The results showed that the attitudes of respondents towards the programme were very positive. When asked to state implementers’ attitude towards the programme, two principals gave similar responses, which are captured as follows: The implementers have positive attitudes towards the programme. They cooperated in all aspects of the implementation of the programme. Initially, they were skeptical about the success of the programme but they are now supportive despite lack of incentives. The responses quoted revealed that the principals were of the view that link tutors in the course of implementing the programme developed positive attitude towards it.

Research on attitude of teachers and learners towards programme implementation has established similar results in other instances. In Netherlands, Koetsier and Wubbels (1995) conducted a study on the attitude of implementers towards the implementation of a similar programme (dubbed) Independent Final Teaching Period) to that of In-In-Out Programme. The study revealed that all the implementers had positive attitude towards the implementation of the programme.

Preparation of Implementers towards the Implementation of the Programme

The responses suggest that very little was done in the area of involving tutors in the designing of the In-In-Out Programme.A majority (72%) of the mentors were prepared towards the implementation of the programme through workshops and seminars. About 22.7% of the mentors were prepared through in-service training, and the rest had information on the programme through circulars/letters sent to their schools. The essence of the workshops or in-service was to introduce mentors to the process of implementing the In-In-Out Programme. Aspects of the workshops and seminars include knowledge of the objectives and activities of the programme and how they should conduct their supervisory role as mentors. This showed that most of the mentors had adequate knowledge of the implementation of the programme through the workshops and seminars that were run for them.

The findings revealed that mentees were given very adequate preparation in content areas than they were given in professional training. It can be inferred from this finding that the preparation of mentees was inconsistent with the assertion of Lockheed and Verpoor (1991). They emphasised that the preparation of teachers should not only be built on sound knowledge of subject matter but also acquisition of sound pedagogical skills and constant practice of these skills. This is an indication that the college authorities did not adhere to the prescribed guideline for the preparation of implementers towards the implementation of the programme. In fact, less time was given to the professional training aspect of the programme. This was evident from the responses implementers gave in relations to the items on mentees’ preparation towards the programme. The college authorities’ inability to provide enough professional training sessions for mentees has far reaching consequences on their professional development. It, therefore, implied that mentees were ill prepared for real class room situation. The above findings support the observation of Veenman (1984), that there was good reason to believe that the transition from teacher training to the first teaching job could be a dramatic and traumatic one.
Mentees were required to indicate the better way their colleges could have prepared them for teaching. The responses revealed that 76.7% of the respondents wanted more professional training than the teaching of content; 84.5% of them thought that they should have been taken through all the topics in the basic school’s syllabuses; and 64.7% wanted more time to be allotted to the teaching of content integrated with methods. Below are some responses worth quoting:

Tutors should give enough demonstration lessons for us to observe how to present a lesson to pupils.

This will help us see how to introduce a lesson, how to use varied teaching methods and how to conclude (305)*.

The college should motivate the tutors so that they will always be ready to give out their best (137)*

Tutors should teach mentees the appropriate methods of handling the various topics in basic level syllabuses and give example (083)*

The college should intensify the teaching of methods and content, they should also organize fieledtrips for mentees to see things for themselves (118)
Seminars should be organized during the Out period Content with methods should be properly taught (266)

The time allocated for peer teaching should be increased.
And methodology aspect of the training course should be encouraged (127)*.
By continuing the observation for effective peer teaching more LTMs should be made available in our colleges (253)*.

These responses centered on practical training and provision of teaching learning resources. According to the mentees, the practical training was not enough and that enough time should have been reserved for practical training since the content area was something they had already done. Also, they indicated the need to be helped to develop skills on the selection and usage of teaching learning resources. Their responses corroborate those of the policy document. According to GES/TED (1998):

There should be a move away from the teaching of content to the preparation of teachers for teaching responsibility through purposeful observation of teaching and school work, and through graduated forms of teaching skills development and work experience. Emphasis should be placed on professional training rather than giving out information (p.23)*.
* Serial number of questionnaire.

Availability of Resources in the Colleges

Discussion with some of the respondents and data from the researcher’s observation in the seven colleges revealed that the recommended textbooks for use in transacting the programme were not available in the colleges. According to the tutors, they depend solely on personal experiences and pamphlets written by their colleagues for teaching. One of the tutors said that: “The pamphlets contained a great deal of incorrect information, trivial facts and poor style. But we are compelled to use them”. With such textbooks being used in the colleges, one can hardly say that the programme was being steered on the right course.
Another finding from Table 4 was that the teaching and learning materials were woefully inadequate. This shortfall goes to confirm the inadequate preparation of tutors towards the use of audio-visual resources. Also, data from the researcher’s observation indicates that mentees did not often cite examples from teaching learning materials like posters, newspapers and pictures in their teaching; neither did they refer pupils to such materials. All the colleges had science laboratories but it was revealed that facilities in eh laboratories were inadequate. As such, science related subjects were taught in classrooms with a display of few specimens on a table.

Certainly, the inadequacy of the supply of curriculum materials and the complete lack of them in some cases should have serious repercussions on the effectiveness of the In-In-Out Programme. For, no worker, no matter the nature of the job, can be expected to work effectively without the requisite tools of his trade.
Also, the study revealed that time allotted to the various aspect of the programme was not proportional to the level of importance attached to each component. This is because much time was allotted to first year observation than that of content integrated with methods. With
respect to the other components of the programme, respondents thought otherwise. More than 60% of the respondents claimed that the times allotted for second year peer teaching, visits by link tutors and tutorials by link tutors, and teaching of content integrated with methods were woefully inadequate. That 70% of the mentees suggested that more time should be allocated to method courses and 62.5% of the mentees wanted more time to be allocated to micro-teaching and peer teaching. The general impression, therefore, is that the respondents felt that the time allotted for the various components of the programme was not adequate.


Use of strategies to implement the programme

All the principals interviewed mentioned the supports given to mentees by link tutors as post teaching counseling; guide in lesson preparation; and discussion with the mentors on how mentees are faring. The responses of the principals reflect the findings of table 6. Though guiding mentees on lesson preparation and delivery were the major supports emphasized in the policy document, the low support given to mentees in other areas remains a source of worry. This is because the distance learning materials are textbooks that mentees were not familiar with. By allowing mentees to study these materials alone might put undue pressure on them thereby reducing class contact hours they would have had with pupils.

In summary, some supports given to mentees were very effective and others very little or totally absent. As such, mentees did not receive the required support from tutors. However, based on the mean of means of 2.48, one can infer that the support given to mentees by link tutors was effective.


There was generally a favourable attitude of all categories of respondents to the implementation of the In-In-Out programme, at least, in its conceptual form. The respondents preferred the In-In-Out Programme to the old programme. They took this stance because they felt that the In-In-Out Programme expose mentees to the reality of the profession and is capable of bridging the gap between initial teacher training and classroom work better than the old programme. The respondents therefore felt the In-in-Out Programme was very acceptable and, consequently, would not support any move to discontinue the programme. The involvement of tutors in the development of the programme was very minimal. Only 8.6% of the tutors were involved in the development of curricular materials for the implementation of the In-In-Out Programme. All the mentors were briefed on the implementation of the In-In-Out Programme and the role they were to play either through in-service training or workshop/seminar. The essence of this briefing was to enable them learn how they should conduct their supervisory role as mentors. The implication is that all the mentors had adequate knowledge of their role in the implementation process. The training of mentees was basically in content areas. A mean value of 1.79 shows that the preparation of mentees through practical training was inadequate. The tutors had enough preparation for the implementation of the programme. However, preparation in the use of audiovisual material was very inadequate.

More than 70% of the respondents felt teaching-learning material; science laboratory facilities and teachers’ handbooks were woefully inadequate. The allocation of time for the components of the programme was not the best. Much time was allocated for first year observation and the teaching of content. However, the allocation of time for peer teaching, visits and tutorials by link tutors, and the teaching of content integrated with methods were inadequate. The findings therefore showed that much attention was not given to the professional training aspect of the programme. The required support that tutors and mentors were to give to mentees was inadequate. More than 65% of the respondents felt that the support given by mentors to mentees in terms of lesson planning and delivery was not effective. Class management was the area in which 78.9% of the respondents claimed the support given to mentees was effective. However, tutors gave enough support in lesson planning and delivery but did little in discussing distance learning materials with mentees. The most frequently used instructional method by the tutors was teacher-class discussion. The rarely used method was simulation and the method that was never used was the use of resource persons.The other methods: lecture, field trip, role play, discovery and peer teaching were occasionally used. The rare use of these methods would seem to reflect the unsatisfactory professional preparation of mentees. The most common visit made by tutors to schools of attachment was termly visiting. This is in contradiction to the policy document guiding the implementation of the In-In-Out programme, which stipulates that link tutors should visit schools of attachment every other week. Incompetent mentors, poor supervision, inadequate resource materials, lack of incentives for tutors and mentors and inadequacy of allocated time were some of the challenges identified by respondents as affecting the successful implementation of the In-In-Out Programme.

The programme had some positive impact on mentees. More than 73% of the respondents mentioned some of the impact as exposure to the reality of teaching acquisition of classroom management skills and being more professionally trained. The involvement of the mentees in community activities was very low. With the exception of relationship with parents and community members all other activities showed a mean value of less than 1.0. However, mentees were deeply involved in the activities of the school. Indeed, a mean of means values of 3.37 and 3.77 of mentors and mentees respectively indicated that mentees were actively involved in school activities. A mean of means value of 2.36 rated by tutors indicated that the performance of mentees at school of attachment was good. All respondents generally accepted the programme. The respondents claimed that the programme was more effective in producing competent teachers, but added that the problems identified should be resolved. The overwhelming evidence from the study supported much of the researchers previously cited and at the same time went contrary to some other studies. However, it can be concluded that, differences existed between the implementation of the programme in the classroom situation and the standards that have been set in the policy document guiding the implementation of the programme. These differences occurred mostly in the preparation of mentees and the support that link tutors and mentors were to give to mentees. Furthermore, the recommended resource materials were lacking in most colleges. The study, however, established that all the implementers attach a very high level of importance to the objectives and activities of the programme.


The overwhelming evidence from the study supported much of the researchers previously cited and at the same time went contrary to some other studies. However, it can be concluded that, differences existed between the implementation of the programme in the classroom situation and the standards that have been set in the policy document guiding the implementation of the programme. These differences occurred mostly in the preparation of mentees and the support that link tutors and mentors were to give to mentees.Furthermore, the recommended resource materials were lacking in most colleges. The study, however, established that all the implementers attach a very high level of importance to the objectives and activities of the programme.

On the basis of the findings, the following recommendations are proposed for the consideration of policy makers in teacher education. Information on the programme should be made available to not only the implementers but also all the stakeholders in education including the larger members of the society. This is because the ultimate goals of any innovation in education are geared towards the satisfaction of societal needs. If information about the programme is made available to the general public, the benefits are that the public will adopt a positive attitude towards the programme and even contribute financially to its implementation. Besides, having detailed information on the programme would satisfy the tutor’s quest for understanding the nature of the programme and appreciating its usefulness. Considering the pivotal role tutors play in the implementation of a new programme, it is strongly recommended that some incentives be provided for tutors and mentors to stimulate their interest towards the programme development and its implementation. Since the successful implementation of any programme, to a large extent, depends heavily on the goodwill and cooperation them with incentives, principals, mentees and mentors, in addition to providing them with incentives, they should be involved or views must be elicited from them in the process of programme development so as to ensure their commitment to its successful implementation. Provision should therefore be made for tutors to be involved in the designing of subsequent programmes as well as curricular materials. This will enable tutors be partners in the implementation process (not consumers). As such, they will do all they can to support it.

The importance of availability of appropriate resource materials in the success of a new programme was stressed. It is important that adequate provision be made for the supply of these inputs to the colleges and all basic schools in the country prior to implementation of the programme. In particular, teacher resource centres in all the colleges should be equipped with those resources materials to enable tutors use them to teach. More importantly, tutors should be trained on how to develop and improvise some of the resource materials needed, and also be trained on how to use them. The government, communities and non-government of these resource materials. Furthermore, training workshops should be organized from time to time for all tutors to develop the skills in writing of textbooks. This will reduce the burden on government of having to use stressed scarce resources in importing or contracting foreign expertise to write textbooks for use in the country. Lecturers in the universities of the country could serve as resource persons. To arrest the problem of incompetent mentors, there should be periodic and regular in-service education for all teachers at the basic level and not only those selected to serve as mentors. The essence of this in-service training is to ensure that teachers at this level have update knowledge of the changes that are taking place in teacher education and for that matter the teaching profession. Also, regular in-service training will facilitate the replacement of teachers who are trained as mentors leave the schools of attachment to another or leave teaching entirely.

One of the priority actions, which need to be taken to sustain and develop the In-In-Out Programme, is the establishment of reliable structures for effective monitoring and evaluation. In line with this, all colleges should be provided with additional vehicle meant solely for conveying tutors to schools of attachment to supervise the work of mentees. This will ease the transportation problems of tutors. In addition, allowances should be paid to tutors according to the number of visits made and the quality of supervision done. The chain of supervision of mentees must therefore be: mentors supervising mentees; tutors supervising both mentors and mentees; and officials from headquarters supervising the activities of colleges and those of schools of attachment. This is to ensure that absenteeism on the part of mentors and mentees are reduced if not eliminated. Also, monthly seminars should be organized for the induction team (link tutors, mentors, and mentees). This will enable the team to discuss the challenges involved in mentorship and the way forward. The present time allocation for peer teaching and the teaching of content integrated with methods (otherwise known as professional training) seems inadequate taking into account the broad nature of the syllabuses of both teacher education and basic education. It is, therefore, suggested that the training colleges must learn to emulate the examples of the universities where lecture hours are created even far into the night to accommodate new courses. The training colleges may not even have to go that far into the night, for after all, they end their classes around two O’clock in the afternoons.


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Submission Date: 23, December 2013

Accepted Date: 26, February 2014


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