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Academic Research Journal of Agricultural Science and Research  Vol. 2(5), pp. 67-75.

September, 2014.  ISSN: 2360-7874 2014 Academic Research Journals

Full Length Research

Runoff-infiltration processes and some physical properties of Degraded Ultisol under different soil and crop management practices in Nsukka, South Eastern Nigeria.

 

*Azukaa, C.V. and Obia, M.E

 

aDepartment of Soil Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka

*Coresponding Author: Azuka, C. V. E-mail: vin4christ2008@yahoo.com

 

Accepted 29  August 2014

Abstract

 

Information on runoff and infiltration processes is important for sustainable management and conservation of soil and water resources for increased productivity on Nigerian agricultural lands. A research was conducted in the runoff plots (20 m x 3 m) at the University of Nigeria Nsukka Teaching and Research Farm to evaluate runoff and some hydrophysical properties of Nkpologu sandy loam soil under different cover and soil management practices. The management practices were bare fallow (BF), groundnut (GN), and sorghum (SM) cultivation with 10 t/ha poultry manure. Soil samples for analysis were taken at 0-15 cm depth at the end of each cropping season. Runoff and infiltration measurement were done under different soil and crop management practices. There was significant (P < 0.05) effect of soil and crop management practices on bulk density (BD), total porosity (TP), and macro-porosity (MP), except micro-porosity (MIP). The highest values for BD (1.61 kgm-3), TP (49.9 %), MP (6.42 %), and MIP (42.85 %) were obtained under the BF. The lowest BD (1.35 kgm-3) and MP (6.42 %) was recorded under GN, whereas SM recorded the lowest TP (42.10 %) and MIP (36.58 %). The soil and cover management practices significantly influenced the infiltration characteristics, runoff, and soil loss measured (P < 0.05). The final steady infiltration rates ranged from 287 mm h-1 under BF to 468 mm h-1 under GN cover plot, while the cumulative infiltration at the end of 2 hours ranged from 14,460 mm under the BF to 64,500 mm under the SM plot. The highest runoff and soil loss values respectively for both monthly (8.72 mm; 661 kgha-1) and daily (1.554 mm; 126 kgha-1) evaluations were obtained under the BF whereas the lowest values for monthly (1.95 mm; 31 kgha-1) and daily (0.38 mm; 5 kgha-1) evaluations were obtained under GN. The study has shown that this soil is fragile, erodible, and susceptible to different forms of degradation, especially soil erosion. Adequate soil and crop cover management practices are indispensable to minimize further degradation, and to enhance sustainable management of soil and water resources for improved productivity.

Key words: Runoff, Soil loss, infiltration characteristics, sustainable management, degradation.
 

 

Cite this article as: Azuka CV, Obi  ME (2014). Runoff-infiltration processes and some physical properties of Degraded Ultisol under different soil and crop management practices in Nsukka, South Eastern Nigeria. Acad. Res. J. Agric. Sci. Res. pp. 67-75





 

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